Adult social sites
However, after thorough discussion, some regard it as one type of behavioral addiction and this attitude seems to be the majority (3, 14–16).
Our previous study demonstrated that male internet users favored online gaming while female users were online for social networking services (SNSs) via their smartphones (24–26).
Adolescents and youth may particularly be attracted to and preoccupied with various online activities.
A nationwide survey conducted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan (MIAC) in 2017 demonstrated that 96.9% of teenagers in Japan use the internet on a daily basis (1).
The concept of hikikomori was first introduced to the public when a Japanese psychiatrist, Tamaki Saito, published a book in 1998 with the name in its title (30).
In his book Social Withdrawal (Shakaiteki Hikikomori), Saito defined hikikomori provisionally as “those who withdraw entirely from society and stay in their own homes for more than six months, with onset usually during the latter half of their twenties, and for whom other psychiatric disorders do not better explain the primary causes of this condition.” Since then, hikikomori has attracted the interest of researchers and a few epidemiological studies have been carried out in Japan.
Results: There was a trend that males favored gaming in their internet use while females used the internet mainly for social networking via smartphone, and the mean SAS-SV score was higher in females.